Types of Water Wells, Design and Construction

There Are Three Types of Drinking Water Wells

  • Dug wells, or bored wells, are holes in the ground dug by shovel or backhoe. They are lined with stones, brick, tile, or other material to prevent collapse. These wells have a large diameter, are shallow (approx. 10 to 30 feet deep) and are not cased continuously.
  • Driven wells are constructed by driving a pipe into the ground, are cased continuously, and are relatively shallow (approx. 30 to 50 feet deep). Though driven wells are cased, these wells can easily become contaminated.
  • Drilled wells are constructed by using percussion or rotary-drilling machines. Drilled wells are extremely deep and require the installation of well wall casing. These wells have a lower risk of contamination due to their depth and use of continuous casing.


Residential Water Well Design

Other than the well itself, a residential water well design has two important components – a pump and a pressure tank.


There are numerous types and sizes of water system pumps. Some are only designed to remove water, while others not only remove the water but also supply it through the rest of the system.

Some pumps are for specific uses, such as boosting pressure or supplying a special outlet. (Booster pumps must be installed after a storage tank. Otherwise, you will not receive satisfactory water service.)

It is important to know the basics of how your well water system functions. If the wrong type of system is used, it can adversely affect both the water pressure outside and inside the home.

Well water is usually pumped out of the ground automatically by using a pump that sits on top of the ground. This draws water out of the ground to create water pressure for the home.

Some water systems use large storage tanks to store water before it is pumped into the house.

Other well water systems can be gravity fed or use gravity to provide water pressure into the house.

Pressure Tanks

Pressure tanks provide lots of storage for your water system, and there are generally three types of tanks used for water systems:

  • Diaphragm bladder
  • Tanks with a floatation
  • Plain steel tanks


Shallow Well Construction

A shallow well is considered to be any hole that has been drilled into the ground for the purpose of extracting water and is less than 50 feet deep.

Shallow wells can be dug professionally, or by any homeowner, if they follow the rules and regulations of their city and state. Once completed, all well water should be tested, regardless of construction.

Well Construction Methods

For all types of water wells, appropriate well construction depends on the condition of the groundwater. Please check with your state, city, and municipality for information. Also, The National Ground Water Association (NGWA) provides important information about installing well water systems.

Please call the professionals at All American Environmental for help with your Water Well Design and Construction.

All American Environmental
Call: (973) 663-1680
136 Edison Rd. Lake Hopatcong, NJ 07849
Email: allamericanenviro@gmail.com